International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy

169International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy is an interdisciplinary journal covering all areas of renewable and sustainable energy-related fields that apply to the physical science and engineering communities. The coverage of the journal includes the following disciplines: biomass energy efficient architecture fuel cells geothermal energy hydro (tidal, OTEC, small scale hydro-electric) hydrogen energy photochemistry solar (active solar, passive solar, and photovoltaics) transport (alternative energy powered vehicles) wind Renewable and Sustainable Energy, and so on.
About This Journal

International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal, publishing original research, reports, reviews and commentaries on all areas of energy. Subject areas may include, but are not limited to the following fields:

  • • Nuclear energy
  • • Solar energy
  • • Wind energy
  • • Energy conversion
  • • Bioenergy and biofuels
  • • Geothermal energy
  • • Marine energy
  • • Hydroelectric energy
  • • Energy efficient buildings
  • • Energy storage
  • • Power distribution
  • • Transportation
  • • Renewable energy assessment
  • • Energy storage devices
  • • Ocean mechanical and thermal energy

Read this academic journal for free:



Share:The Hawaiian bobtail squid – when science and nature collide

Just how does this cunning little nocturnal hunter stop itself from being spotted by it’s food? Or by fish looking for an easy meal? And what on earth has that got to do with nasty bacteria? Find out in the short animation sponsored by the UK Society for Applied Microbiology.

For a little more detail, you can listen to me chatting about this amazing little creature on Radio New Zealand’s Nine to Noon programme with Kathryn Ryan ( [13 minutes]).

Story and Video source:

Missile War Injuries of the Face and Maxillofacial Injuries in Road Traffic Accident


Professor Raja Kummoona, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FDSRCS), Emeritus professor of Maxillofacial Surgery, Iraqi Board for Medical Specializations; Fellow of Royal Society of Medicine; Research Fellow Royal College of Surgeons of England (1975-1977); President of Iraqi Dental Society (1977-1985); Registrar of Primary FDSRCS in Iraq (1985-1990); the most distinguished professor of University of Baghdad (1991-1992); one of 40 top scientists in Iraq awarded gold medal for 3 years (2000-2002) by presidential celebration. He had many publications and contributions to science by advocating many surgical procedures and researches in cancer surgery and flap reconstruction, TMJ surgery, Maxillofacial injuries, Orbit tumors and Missile war injuries of the face with advancing surgery of war injuries of the face worldwide. With contribution in research in cancer, he is the finder of post graduate studies in maxillofacial surgery in Iraq. He was the editor of Neck Dissection, Clinical Application and Recent Advances, Feb. 2012, InTech and editor of monograph Surgical Reconstruction of the Temporo-Mandibulr Joint, 2013, Lambert, Germany. He published a book on Disease of the Temporomandibular Joint, Surgical Reconstruction, Clinical & Experimental Studies, Apr. 2014, SciencePG, USA.

About this book:

This book reflects experience of the author in war surgery as a Hot Topic nowadays including missile war injuries of the face. The face is the most important part of the body. The international war of terrorist in Iraq and Syria is acrimonious, because of thousands of innocent people died every month and it is our daily life. Not many people got the chance to be treated by expert surgeons. The author’s experience is recognized worldwide in managements of these cases for primary care or secondary phases which required a great knowledge, skill and expertise for managements of these complicated cases. A new classification for missile war injuries presented and advance research done on integrity of the carotid tree by using duplex sonography to study the peak systolic and end diastolic velocity and the intima, medial thickness of the carotid vessels, the flow and velocity of blood, these studies carried on post traumatic missile injuries cases. Many surgeons in the west do not know much about these types of injuries because they do not face it as we do. This book also contains chapter on maxillofacial injuries covering all parts of the facial skeleton fractures that have been effected and the author’s technique for managements of these cases by reduction and fixation by using external types by Halo Frame, Box Frame external pin fixation and internal suspension technique for managements of many difficult cases. Some of these cases were complicated with CSF leakage. The managements and the investigations were carried out by using spectrophotometry apparatus to differentiate between CSF and serum. Glasgow Coma Scale described and practiced on our patients with head injuries also described.

The book also contains orbital skeleton injuries and the various techniques which had been used for managements of very difficult cases of orbital skeleton injuries. These cases were treated by different techniques for reconstruction of orbital walls by chrome cobalt mesh, bone graft, Sialastic, Lyophilized Dura and combination of bone graft with additional layer of Sialastics in cases showed re-sorption of bone after one year later, the result was very optimistic for restoration of function, vision, canthus ligament fixation and aesthetic feature of the face.

The last chapter deals with orbital tumors and these tumors classified as malignant and benign tumors, the surgical managements of malignant tumors by exenterating of the orbit with augmentation of the orbit by temporalis muscle flap and reconstruction done by different local flaps. The results reflected our experience for managements of very difficult tumors of the orbit.

The book is nicely illustrated to cover all chapters with very interesting cases. I think this book is a leading atlas book worldwide in managements of missile war injuries with additional knowledge in civil facial injuries. I hope to present a very interesting and up to date knowledge with recent advances in managements of facial injuries in both war injuries and civil injuries.

Read this book here:


Share:‘Monogamous’ penguins spend most of their year apart

‘Monogamous’ penguins spend most of their year apart

With its spiky head plumage and intense red eyes, the southern rockhopper penguin (Eudypteschrysocome, seen above) looks more like a slightly predatory guy at a college party than a committed monogamous partner. But these males mate for life, reuniting with the same female year after year during mating season. Despite their monogamous mating patterns, however, the birds really don’t spend much time together,  according to a new study. Using GPS trackers mounted to the penguins’ legs, scientists monitored 16 birds from a colony in the Falkland Islands over the course of a mating season. The data show that males arrived at the nesting site approximately 6 days before their female counterparts and stayed about 6 days longer. However, the short mating season means the pairs are only united for about 20 to 30 days a year. And when they were separated, it was usually by a large distance: During the winter months, partners were separated by an average distance of about 600 km, and one pair was observed as far as 2500 km apart, the team reports online today in Biology Letters. Despite the large spatial segregation, their habitats were quite similar, ruling out the possibility that partners are spending the winter months apart because of sex-based differences in habitat or food preference. So why don’t the birds just stick together? So far it’s still a mystery, but the team speculates that if the birds arrived at and left the nesting site at the same time, they’d be much more likely to spend the winter together. But because the females show up late and leave early, the cost of finding one another after a week of dispersing through the open ocean might not be worth it—it’s easier to just meet back at the nesting site next year.

Story source:

How a New Father’s Brain Changes

Dad’s mental shifts are different from mom’s

The birth of a child leaves its mark on the brain. Most investigations of these changes have focused on mothers, but scientists have recently begun looking more closely at fathers. Neural circuits that support parental behaviors appear more robust in moms a few weeks after the baby is born, whereas in dads the growth can take several months.

A study in Social Neuroscience analyzed 16 dads several weeks after their baby’s birth and again a few months later. At each check, the researchers administered a multiple-choice test to check for signs of depression and used MRI to image the brain. Compared with the earlier scans, MRI at three to four months postpartum showed growth in the hypothalamus, amygdala and other regions that regulate emotion, motivation and decision making. Furthermore, dads with more growth in these brain areas were less likely to show depressive symptoms, says first author Pilyoung Kim, who directs the Family and Child Neuroscience Lab at the University of Denver.

Although some physiological brain changes are similar in new moms and dads, other changes seem different and could relate to the roles of each parent, says senior author James Swain, a psychiatrist at the University of Michigan (brain diagrams below).

Story source:

CubeSail Displaced Orbit Design for Near Earth Object Observation

Authors:Yang Yang1, Xiaokui Yue1, Yong Li3, Andrew G. Dempster2, Chris. Rizos3

Abstract: Microsatellites known as “CubeSats” have recently been developed to enable comparatively inexpensive and timely access to space for small payloads. As a new standard for small satellites, the CubeSat has shown great promise for space applications such as earth observation, planetary science and space physics mission. In this paper a “CubeSail” mission – a CubeSat deployed with a solar sail –for near earth object (NEO) observation is introduced. It is important to observe a NEO which may intersect or pass close toearth space before instigating any procedure for hazard avoidance. Furthermore, close observation of NEO may also be important for exploiting the new resources and exploring new living environment in outer space. This paper describes the concept of a large numbers of CubeSails deployed in the vicinity of the NEO for observation purposes. The dynamic model of the NEO-centreddis placed orbit in space is analysed. The solar radiation pressure on the sail can be utilised as propulsion to compensate for third body gravitational perturbation. To maintain the relative motion/position between a CubeSail and the NEO, periodic initial conditions are searched, which also must satisfy some observation mission constraints. A simulation study is carried out using the near earth asteroid Apophis 99942, discovered in recent years.

image001 (22)

Keywords: CubeSail, Multi-Object Global Optimisation, Relative Motion, Apophis 99942

Read full scientific papers in American Journal of Aerospace Engineering:

History Research

205History Research (HISTORY) is a peer-reviewed open access journal published bimonthly in English-language, features a range of comparative and cross-cultural scholarship and encourages research on forces that work their influences across cultures and civilizations. This journal publishes original papers, review articles and short communications, including large-scale population movements and economic fluctuations; cross-cultural transfers of technology; the spread of infectious diseases; long-distance trade; and the spread of religious faiths, ideas.

ISSN:2376-6700 (Print)

ISSN:2376-6719 (Online)

History Research is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal featuring research articles of exceptional significance in all areas of history. Subject areas may include, but are not limited to the following fields:

  • • Africa history
  • • Archeology history
  • • Art and architecture history
  • • Asia history
  • • Australasia and oceania history
  • • British Isles history
  • • Business, labor and economics history
  • • Classical history
  • • Culture history
  • • Demography history
  • • East Asia history
  • • Eastern history
  • • Balkans history
  • • Southern Europe history
  • • Egypt history
  • • Environment history
  • • Ethnic and racial studies
  • • General history
  • • Genocide history
  • • Historiography
  • • Teaching and methodology
  • • Latin America & the Caribbean history
  • • Media and books
  • • Middle Ages history
  • • Middle East history
  • • Military history
  • • Modern and contemporary history
  • • Nordic Europe history
  • • Philosophy history
  • • Religion history
  • • Science and technology history
  • • Social history
  • • South Asia history
  • • Southeast Asia history
  • • United States and Canada history
  • • Urban history
  • • Western Europe history
  • • Women’s and gender studies
  • This a academic journal in SciencePG, if you like, you can read this journal for free, or submit your paper in this journal!

Ancient fossils suggest new color scheme for feathered dinosaur

Ancient fossils suggest new color scheme for feathered dinosaur

Researchers have taken cues from tiny, 150-million-year-old fossilized organelles to figure out the color of a feathered dinosaur from the Jurassic period, R&D Magazine reports. The study, published in Scientific Reports, looks at fossilized organelles (called melanosomes) that contain melanin, a type of pigment that suggests a color scheme for the birdlike dinosaur: gray feathers on its body, a reddish mohawk down the center of its head, and white feathers with black tips that line the creature’s wings and legs.

Story and photo source: