International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy

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Beginning Date: Aug. 25, 2015

Ending Date: Aug. 27, 2015

Language: English


Omics Group



OMICS Group invites you to attend the International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy which will be held on August 26-28, 2015 at Valencia, Spain. The main theme of the conference is “Accelerating Advancements and Frontiers in Biofuels & Bioenergy”.
Biofuels-2015 is an extraordinary event designed for the International professionals to facilitate the dissemination and application of research findings related to Biofuels and Bioenergy as replacement fuels. The conference invites participants from all leading universities, research institutions and leading companies to share their research experiences on all aspects of this rapidly expanding field.
Biofuels-2015 focuses on the production, industrial implementation strategies and economic growth from biofuels. It is a scientific platform to meet fellow key decision makers all-around the Biotech organizations, Academic Institutions, Industries, & Environment Related Institutes etc., and making the congress a perfect platform to share and gain the knowledge in the field of bioenergy and biofuels.
Biofuels-2015 will schedule and coordinate all meetings with our editorial board members and other experts in the world related to the respective theme. The scientific program paves a way to gather visionaries through the research talks and presentations and put forward many thought provoking strategies of production and scale up of renewable Energy and making the congress a perfect platform to share proficiency.
Now, a few days left, hurry up, if you are interested in this international conference.

Shifting winds, ocean currents doubled endangered Galápagos penguin population

Source:American Geophysical Union


Shifting winds, ocean currents doubled endangered Galápagos penguin population, new research shows. The Galápagos Islands, a chain of islands 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) west of mainland Ecuador, are home to the only penguins in the Northern Hemisphere. The 48-centimeter (19-inch) tall black and white Galápagos penguins landed on the endangered species list in 2000 after the population plummeted to only a few hundred individuals and are now considered the rarest penguins in the world.

Galápagos penguin (stock image). The Galápagos Islands are home to the only penguins in the Northern Hemisphere. The 48-centimeter (19-inch) tall black and white Galápagos penguins landed on the endangered species list in 2000 after the population plummeted to only a few hundred individuals and are now considered the rarest penguins in the world.
Credit: © Roger Schmid / Fotolia

Shifts in trade winds and ocean currents powered a resurgence of endangered Galápagos penguins over the past 30 years, according to a new study. These changes enlarged a cold pool of water the penguins rely on for food and breeding — an expansion that could continue as the climate changes over the coming decades, the study’s authors said.

The Galápagos Islands, a chain of islands 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) west of mainland Ecuador, are home to the only penguins in the Northern Hemisphere. The 48-centimeter (19-inch) tall black and white Galápagos penguins landed on the endangered species list in 2000 after the population plummeted to only a few hundred individuals and are now considered the rarest penguins in the world.

Most of the penguins live on the archipelago’s westernmost islands, Isabela and Fernandina, where they feed on fish that live in a cold pool of water on the islands’ southwestern coasts. The cold pool is fed by an ocean current, the Equatorial Undercurrent, which flows toward the islands from the west. When the current runs into Isabela and Fernandina, water surges upward, bringing cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface.

New research suggests shifts in wind currents over the past three decades, possibly due to climate change and natural variability, have nudged the Equatorial Undercurrent north. The changing current expanded the nutrient-rich, cold water farther north along the coasts of the two islands, likely bolstering algae and fish numbers in the cold pool. This allowed the penguin population to double over the past 30 years, swelling to more than 1,000 birds by 2014, according to the new study.

Climate change could further shift wind patterns and ocean currents, expanding cold water further north along the coasts of Isabela and Fernandina and driving fish populations higher, according to the new study.

Penguins, as well as other animals like fur seals and marine iguanas that feed and reproduce near the cold waters, may increase in numbers as the northwestern coasts of the islands become more habitable, said the study’s authors. They noted that wind and ocean currents could also return to earlier conditions, leading to a decline in penguin populations.

“The penguins are the innocent bystanders experiencing feast or famine depending on what the Equatorial Undercurrent is doing from year to year,” said Kristopher Karnauskas, a climate scientist who performed the research while at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and lead author of the new study recently accepted in Geophysical Research Letters, an American Geophysical Union journal.

The new findings could help inform conservation efforts to save the endangered penguins, said the study’s authors. Increasing efforts on the northern coasts of the islands and expanding marine-protected areas north to where the penguins are now feeding and breeding could support population growth, the study’s authors said.

Karnauskas notes that the vast majority of marine organisms will be negatively affected by the rise in ocean temperatures and acidification that are expected to occur across the globe as a result of climate change.

“With climate change, there are a lot of new and increasing stresses on ecosystems, but biology sometimes surprises us,” said Karnauskas. “There might be places–little outposts–where ecosystems might thrive just by coincidence.”

Penguin population changes

The Galápagos penguin population tenuously hangs onto the islands that so enthralled Charles Darwin during his visit in 1835. The penguins once numbered around 2,000 individuals, but in the early 1980s a strong El Niño — a time when sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific are unusually warm — brought their numbers down to less than 500 birds. Dogs, cats and rats introduced to the islands also stymied the penguin population by attacking the birds, disturbing their nests, and introducing new diseases, according to previous research.

Despite these setbacks, the penguins gradually increased in number in the following decades, according to local bird counts. Researchers, interested by the increase in penguins, noted that the birds remained near the coldest stretches of water. Nearly all of the Galápagos penguins live on the western coasts of Isabela and Fernandina, and two-thirds of them huddled near the coldest waters at the southern tips of the islands, according to previous research.

The study’s authors wanted to know whether the growing numbers of penguins were related to local changes in ocean temperature. They combined previously-collected penguin population data from 1982 to 2014 with sea surface temperature data from satellites, ships and buoys for the same time period.

They found that the cold pool, where sea surface temperatures are below 22 degrees Celsius (71 degrees Fahrenheit), expanded 35 kilometers (22 miles) farther north than where it was located at the beginning of the study period. In the 1980s the cold water pocket reached only the southern halves of the western coasts of Isabela and Fernandina. By 2014, the cold water pocket extended across the entire western coasts of the islands.

Varying trade winds, ocean currents

A shift in trade winds and underwater ocean currents likely caused the Galápagos cold pool expansion, propose the authors.

Trade winds blow surface ocean waters from the southern side of the equator to the northern side of the equator. As surface waters pile up in the north, the water at the bottom of the pile is squished south, nudging the Equatorial Undercurrent — a cold current that flows roughly 50 meters (160 feet) under the ocean surface — south of the equator.

Likely due to a combination of natural variation and human-caused climate change, trade winds west of the Galápagos slackened during the study period, lessening the pressure pushing the Equatorial Undercurrent south, according to the new study. Consequently, the ocean current gradually shifted north, increasing the amount of cold water coming to the Galápagos Islands, according to the study’s authors.

Satellite images showed that this expanded pool of cold water likely encouraged the growth of phytoplankton, according to the new study. This increase in ocean algae attracted fish to the area — the main entrée for Galápagos penguins, suggest the authors. The largest pulses of cold water reached the islands from July through December, coinciding with the penguins’ breeding season. The bountiful fish helped the birds successfully reproduce and feed their young, according to the new study.

Models indicate trade winds will continue to abate in the future as the climate warms, Karnauskas said. This could cause the undercurrent to continue to move north, expanding the Galápagos cold pool and possibly further raising penguin populations, he said. Other animal populations like the endangered Galápagos fur seal and the marine iguana also may profit from the prolific amount of food in the Galápagos cold pool, according to the study’s authors.

Wind and ocean currents could also possibly return to where they were in the 1980s, compressing the cold pool and possibly leading to a decline in penguins, Karnauskas added.

The new study shows how large-scale changes in the climate can act locally, said Michelle L’Heureux, a climate scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Prediction Center in College Park, Maryland, and not an author on the new paper.

“While it is important that we focus on the big picture with climate change, it’s really the small scale that matters to the animals and plants that are impacted,” she said.

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Geophysical Union. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. K. B. Karnauskas, S. Jenouvrier, C. W. Brown, R. Murtugudde. Strong sea surface cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and implications for Galápagos Penguin conservation. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015; DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064456


Tiny grains of rice hold big promise for greenhouse gas reductions, bioenergy

Discovery delivers high starch content, virtually no methane emissions
July 29, 2015
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population, but the paddies it’s grown in contributes up to 17 percent of global methane emissions — about 100 million tons a year. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane, more starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production.
Rice serves as the staple food for more than half of the world’s population, but it’s also the one of the largest humanmade sources of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane from its paddies during growth. It also packs much more of the plant’s desired properties, such as starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production, according to a study in Nature.

In addition to a near elimination of greenhouse gases associated with its growth, SUSIBA2 rice produces substantially more grains for a richer food source. The new strain is shown here (right) compared to the study’s control.
Credit: Image courtesy of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

With their warm, waterlogged soils, rice paddies contribute up to 17 percent of global methane emissions, the equivalent of about 100 million tons each year. While this represents a much smaller percentage of overall greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide, methane is about 20 times more effective at trapping heat. SUSIBA2 rice, as the new strain is dubbed, is the first high-starch, low-methane rice that could offer a significant and sustainable solution.

Researchers created SUSIBA2 rice by introducing a single gene from barley into common rice, resulting in a plant that can better feed its grains, stems and leaves while starving off methane-producing microbes in the soil.

The results, which appear in the July 30 print edition of Nature and online, represent a culmination of more than a decade of work by researchers in three countries, including Christer Jansson, director of plant sciences at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and EMSL, DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Jansson and colleagues hypothesized the concept while at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and carried out ongoing studies at the university and with colleagues at China’s Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Hunan Agricultural University.

“The need to increase starch content and lower methane emissions from rice production is widely recognized, but the ability to do both simultaneously has eluded researchers,” Jansson said. “As the world’s population grows, so will rice production. And as Earth warms, so will rice paddies, resulting in even more methane emissions. It’s an issue that must be addressed.”

Channeling carbon

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is absorbed and converts to sugars to feed or be stored in various parts of the plant. Researchers have long sought to better understand and control this process to coax out desired characteristics of the plant. Funneling more carbon to the seeds in rice results in a plumper, starchier grain. Similarly, carbon and resulting sugars channeled to stems and leaves increases their mass and creates more plant biomass, a bioenergy feedstock.

In early work in Sweden, Jansson and his team investigated how distribution of sugars in plants could be controlled by a special protein called a transcription factor, which binds to certain genes and turns them on or off.

“By controlling where the transcription factor is produced, we can then dictate where in a plant the carbon — and resulting sugars — accumulate,” Jansson said.

To narrow down the mass of gene contenders, the team started with grains of barley that were high in starch, then identified genes within that were highly active. The activity of each gene then was analyzed in an attempt to find the specific transcription factor responsible for regulating the conversion of sugar to starch in the above-ground portions of the plant, primarily the grains.

The master plan

Upon discovery of the transcription factor SUSIBA2, for SUgar SIgnaling in BArley 2, further investigation revealed it was a type known as a master regulator. Master regulators control several genes and processes in metabolic or regulatory pathways. As such, SUSIBA2 had the ability to direct the majority of carbon to the grains and leaves, and essentially cut off the supply to the roots and soil where certain microbes consume and convert it to methane.

Researchers introduced SUSIBA2 into a common variety of rice and tested its performance against a non-modified version of the same strain. Over three years of field studies in China, researchers consistently demonstrated that SUSIBA2 delivered increased crop yields and a near elimination of methane emissions.

Next steps

Jansson will continue his work with SUSIBA2 this fall to further investigate the mechanisms involved with the allocation of carbon using mass spectrometry and imaging capabilities at EMSL. Jansson and collaborators also want to analyze how roots and microbial communities interact to gain a more holistic understanding of any impacts a decrease in methane-producing bacteria may have.

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

J. Su, C. Hu, X. Yan, Y. Jin, Z. Chen, Q. Guan, Y. Wang, D. Zhong, C. Jansson, F. Wang, A. Schnürer, C. Sun. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice. Nature, 2015; 523 (7562): 602 DOI: 10.1038/nature14673


How Ant-Man ants got this Cheerio home

When out of their nest, workers of the longhorn crazy ant (Paratrechinalongicornis) band together toward a common goal: to bring food back to the nest. But even when a few of these long-legged, silver-haired ants (of Ant-Man fame) team up to carry a large item—such as a wasp—they often lose their way home. That’s where a wandering ant comes in, according to a study published online today in Nature Communications. This wanderer from the same nest joins the group to steer it in the right direction—it pulls and others comply (as seen in the video above of ants carrying a Cheerio). But the new recruit eventually forgets the way home as well; perhaps the size and smell of the food impede navigation. That’s when another free-roaming ant comes to the band’s rescue and leads it toward the nest. Over time—and a handful of wandering ants—the group finds its way home.

Battle wound may reveal bones of Alexander the Great’s father

A battle wound suffered more than 2000 years ago may be helping scientists lay a 40-year-old archaeological mystery to rest. In a 4th century B.C.E. skirmish over war spoils, a lance impaled the leg of King Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, killing his horse and leaving the powerful ruler lame, according to ancient literary sources. Three years later, Philip—who was probably in his mid-40s—was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding celebration, and it wasn’t until the late 1970s, when two male skeletons were excavated from a pair of royal tombs in Vergina, Greece, that researchers believed they had found the monarch’s remains. After decades of debate, many archaeologists concluded that Philip was buried in tomb II, now commonly called the “Tomb of Philip.” Among other evidence, its male skeleton bore damage to the skull, which scholars linked to an injury the ruler received when an arrow reportedly left him blind in his right eye. Now, a new study published today in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences may have turned that idea on its head. Using scanning and radiography to analyze the unearthed bones, a team of scientists has concluded that tomb I, not tomb II, housed the king’s remains as well as those of his roughly 18-year-old wife, Cleopatra, and their newborn child, both killed soon after Philip. The approximately 45-year-old male had leg bones that show evidence of a traumatic injury: The knee area sported a suspicious spear-sized hole, and the tibia and femur had fused together at the joint—likely a result of the penetrating wound—which would have given the owner a pronounced limp (see video). The other male skeleton bears no evidence of such a debilitating wound, casting doubt on its authenticity, the scientists say.


Amazing Science Experiments

Jump into any science experiment:

(00:36) How To Make Square Bubbles
(03:37) How to Make a Hovercraft
(05:14) How to Make Slime
(07:57) How to Make a Rainbow in a Tube
(11:01) How To Make Lava Art At Home
(14:38) How to Make a Home Made Lava Lamp for Kids
(17:15) How To Measure Your Lung Capacity
(20:26) Water Defying Gravity Experiments
(21:39) How to Make a Home Made Candle from an Orange
(23:39) Magic Trick with Matches and a Coin

Good video for you who are interested in science experiments, if you like, you can also do it at home, that will be interesting, but be careful!

Source of this video:

The Anticancer Effects of Hexane Extract of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Muscle Enriched with Vegetable Oil Brasica sp.


Poroshad Montazeri Shahtoori, Faculty of marine science and technology, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Mozhgan Emtyazjoo, Faculty of marine science and technology, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Shahin Bonakdar, National cell Bank Department, Faculty of Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran


Mohammad Rabani, Faculty of marine science and technology, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

To cite this article
Poroshad Montazeri Shahtoori, Mozhgan Emtyazjoo, Shahin Bonakdar, Mohammad Rabani, The Anticancer Effects of Hexane Extract of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Muscle Enriched with Vegetable Oil Brasica sp., Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 63-67. doi:10.11648/j.crj.20150304.11

Background: As Canola oil (Brasica sp.) has beneficial compositions of essential fatty acids like saturated fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), practically it use in many experimental purposes. There are considerable amounts of oleic acid which is mono unsaturated fatty acids in canola oil that caused a good resistance to thermal processes such as deep frying. Rainbow trout is the main fish species farmed in about 85% of the total rate allocated to producing aquaculture fish in Iran. Rainbow trout has found in food baskets of many people due to its high nutritional value. Methods: in this study the hexane extracts of fish muscle isolated with purity of 250, 50, 10, 5 and 0.5 μg/ml at regular intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours to determine the effects of hexane extracts on parameters which are associated with the survival of skin cancer cells A431 by MTT method in vitro comparison. Results: The effect of various concentrations of hexane extracts from fish muscle showed that the extracts of muscle at varying time intervals in hexane extracts administration had different effects on mortality of A431 cancer cells. Increasing of hexane extracts had significantly decreased the carcinogenic cells. The concentrations of hexane extract in 250 μg/ml at 24 hours were killed 50 percent of skin cancer A431cell lines. The addition of Brasica sp. vegetable oil as a dietary supplement is required to fish diet rations. Conclusion: In the present study the hexane extract inhibit the growth of cancer cells where the extract can be used as an anticancer agent for the operation of this lineage.

Cancer, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Canola Oil (Brasica sp.), MTT Assay


If you want, you can read this article for free in Science Publishing Group.

In order to prolong the life of Earth, new energy technology continues to upgrade

The environmental protection of Earth has always been a research subject which continues to be explored by scholars, and in recent years as people continue to use the planet’s resources, the future survival of humanity will face a great crisis. Currently, scholars continue to promote energy conservation has gained ground. Besides these, scientists are also constantly on the green energy technology research and development, for researching and developing a new energy without destroying the environment to sustain human life.

At present, the country has a strong strength of green energy research and development in the world, is American, the US economy is relatively advanced level of development, with a strong economic support and research & development capabilities. In the research platform like Science Publishing G in United States, there are a green energy R & D sector on their journal, there is a discussion of several authors use microcontroller to mimic the solar system works, although the present situation, this paper has a theoretical basis, but current technology still a lot of content can not be achieved, which brings significant barrier to new energy research and development. And the cost of this technology uses up relatively high, the risk is relatively large, there are a lot of technical problems need to be cracked.

In addition, the use of biological technology to develop new energy sources has become one of America’s important researches & development projects, bio-energy compared to mechanical energy, pollution to the environment to be much smaller, but equally controllable bio-energy is relatively small, you can not provide a steady supply of energy.

On the whole, the United States has begun a new energy research and development results, and those results also have to be shared on some platforms, which draw on research conducted in other countries in the world provides a good idea. I think the platform like Science Publishing Group, although it’s a group publishing, it provide a large platform open access for the scientist all over the world, and they use the platform to share research results and discuss scientific subject using their scientific papers and scientific research articles, promote the development of science and technology.

I believe in the future with the efforts of mankind together, the Earth’s life will also be extended, and people all over the world will contribute their strength for the continued survival of the human, it’s the continuation of civilization humanity.


Genetic tweak turned plague bacterium deadly

Mutation in newly acquired gene transformed Yersinia pestis into a mass killer

11:00AM, JUNE 30, 2015
Yersinia pestis bacteria

Two genetic changes turned the plague into a scourge.

The ancestor of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis causes mild stomach disease. Early in its evolution, Y. pestis acquired a single gene from other bacteria that allowed it to cause the deadly lung infections of pneumonic plague, scientists report June 30 in Nature Communications. Later, one mutation in this gene enabled Y. pestis to invade the lymph nodes and blood, creating the bubonic plague behind pandemics like the 14th century’s Black Death.

Microbiologist Wyndham Lathem and colleagues at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago tested different strains of Yersinia bacteria in mice to determine which genes were needed for the microbes’ deadly evolution. The results indicate that Y. pestis could cause pneumonic plague very early in its evolution, and that one mutation may have made the difference between isolated disease outbreaks and global epidemics.

Other adaptations also make Y. pestis suited to its deadly role, Lathem says, so further research will seek additional genetic differences that separate the bacterium from its microbial predecessors.