Mitsutaka Yakabe, Sumito Ogawa*, Masahiro Akishita
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract: Sarcopenia is an age-related condition characterized by low muscle mass and low physical performance. Several groups have established diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, which include usual gait speed, skeletal muscle mass and grip strength. In this article, we summarize these criteria, pathogenesis, epidemiology, related conditions and possible interventions for sarcopenia.
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Frailty, Vitamin D, Testosterone, Nutrition, Inflammation
Sarcopenia is characterized by loss of muscle mass, strength and function. This debilitating condition is common in the elderly and results in frailty, disability 1, and high mortality 2. The number of elderly population with sarcopenia is increasing all over the world, and it is becoming an important public concern 3.
The word “sarcopenia” is derived from Greek ‘sarx’ (flesh) and ‘penia’ (loss). This term was first proposed by Rosenberg in 1988, originally indicating muscle mass loss caused by aging 4. The range of muscle decrease included in sarcopenia was controversial, and there was no conclusive definition of sarcopenia. In 2010, European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) defined sarcopenia as “a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and death” 5. Then sarcopenia have gradually come to be known to clinicians and researchers.
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