Analyzing Risks Related to the Use of Pesticides in Vegetable Gardens in Burkina Faso


Rayim Wendé Alice Naré, Laboratoire Sol-Eau-Plante. Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), ouagadougou, Burkina Faso


Paul Windinpsidi Savadogo, Laboratoire Sol-Eau-Plante. Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), ouagadougou, Burkina Faso


Zacharia Gnankambary, Laboratoire Sol-Eau-Plante. Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), ouagadougou, Burkina Faso


Hassan Bismarck Nacro, Laboratoire d’Etude et de Recherche sur la Fertilité des Sols (LERF), Université Polytechnique de Bobo Dioulasso (UPB), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso


Michel Papaoba Sedogo, Laboratoire Sol-Eau-Plante. Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

In West Africa, the uncontrolled use of pesticides by vegetable farmers leads to contamination of soils as well as surface and ground water. Farmers also use various sources of organic amendments which could impact the fate of the pesticides in soils. This study was conducted to identify the type of pesticides and organic amendments used in the main vegetable gardens in Ouagadougou, Ouahigouya and Bobo-Dioulasso three cities of Burkina Faso. Farmers were interviewed individually on their practices regarding organic amendments and pesticides. Sixty one percent (61%) of farmers do not know the instruction regarding the application of pesticides. Fifty three percent (53%) of farmers did never receive training on pesticide application. We found that pyrethroid-based insecticides like lambda-cyhalothrin and delthametrin were the most used by farmers. About 69%, 59% and 100% of the farmers apply the pesticides periodically in their fields respectively in Ouagadougou, Ouahigouya and Bobo-Dioulasso. All the farmers interviewed attested that they do not respect the recommended doses of pesticides. Manure was the organic amendment mostly used in the three cities (41-75%), followed by household garbage (15-41%). In Ouagadougou most of farmers (69%) apply organic amendment at the recommended rate or more while in Bobo-Dioulasso (69%) and in Ouahigouya (57%), the majority apply low rates. There is a correlation between the social status (sex and the education level) and the pesticide and organic amendment management.

Soil, Pesticides, Organic Amendment, Environment Pollution, Burkina Faso

If you like, you can read full scientific paper for free in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

That’s why Japanese Food is Loved All Over the World – The Source of the Health and Longevity

big34Authors: Yoshikatsu Murooka, is an Emeritus Professor of Osaka University, Japan. Formerly a Visiting Fellow and a Visiting Scientist at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, a Professor in the Department of Fermentation Technology, Hiroshima University, a Professor in the Biotechnology, Graduate School of Osaka University and an Executive Director in the Education and Research Center of Osaka University, San-Francisco. Dr. murooka received the B.S. degree (1966) in fermentation technology from Hiroshima University and the Ph. D. degree in biotechnology from Osaka University, Japan.

Description: We often hear about the merits of Japanese food, but the books which were written about them from the scientific aspects were rarely published. This book introduces the scientific basis of why Japanese food is a source of health and longevity. Readers can know how to produce traditional Japanese foods and also learn the bases of modern life science and biotechnology together with food science. For those who are not familiar with Japan, this book also introduces Japanese culture concerned with typical Japanese foods.

It’s a book published in Science Publishing Group, if you like, you can read this book in Science Publishing Group, or you can also publish your book in this publisher online.


415-million-year-old malformed fossil plankton reveal that heavy metal pollution might have contributed to some of the world’s largest extinction events

Date:August 25, 2015

Source:Ghent University

Summary:Several Palaeozoic mass extinction events during the Ordovician and Silurian periods (ca. 485 to 420 to million years ago) shaped the evolution of life on our planet. Although some of these short-lived, periodic events were responsible for eradication of up to 85 percent of marine species, the exact kill-mechanism responsible for these crises remains poorly understood

Malformed (a) versus normal (b) plankton. Toxic metal contamination may be a previously unrecognized contributing agent to many, if not all, extinction events in the ancient oceans.
Credit: Image courtesy of Ghent University
Several Palaeozoic mass extinction events during the Ordovician and Silurian periods (ca. 485 to 420 to million years ago) shaped the evolution of life on our planet. Although some of these short-lived, periodic events were responsible for eradication of up to 85% of marine species, the exact kill-mechanism responsible for these crises remains poorly understood.

An international team led by Thijs Vandenbroucke (researcher at the French CNRS and invited professor at UGent) and Poul Emsbo (US Geological Survey) initiated a study to investigate a little known association between ‘teratological’ or ‘malformed’ fossil plankton assemblages coincident with the initial stages of these extinction events.

In a paper just published in Nature Communications, they present evidence that malformed fossil remains of marine plankton from the late Silurian (415 million years ago) contain highly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, such as iron, lead, and arsenic. These are well-known toxins that cause morphologic abnormalities in modern aquatic organisms; which led the authors to conclude that metal poisoning caused the malformation observed in these ancient organisms and may have contributed to their extinction and that of many other species.

Documented chemical behavior of these metals, which correlates with previously observed disturbances in oceanic carbon, oxygen and sulphur signatures, strongly suggests that these metal increases resulted from reductions of ocean oxygenation.

Thus, metal toxicity, and its expressions in fossilized malformations, could provide the ‘missing link’ that relates organism extinctions to widespread ocean anoxia. As part of a series of complex systemic interactions accompanying oceanic geochemical variation, the mobilisation of metals in spreading anoxic waters may identify the early phase of the kill-mechanism that culminated in these catastrophic events.

The recurring correlation between fossil malformations and Ordovician-Silurian extinction events raises the provocative prospect that toxic metal contamination may be a previously unrecognized contributing agent to many, if not all, extinction events in the ancient oceans.

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Ghent University.Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Thijs R. A. Vandenbroucke, Poul Emsbo, Axel Munnecke, Nicolas Nuns, Ludovic Duponchel, Kevin Lepot, Melesio Quijada, Florentin Paris, Thomas Servais, Wolfgang Kiessling. Metal-induced malformations in early Palaeozoic plankton are harbingers of mass extinction. Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 7966 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8966



Free Publication in 12 Journals and 70% Discount in 5 Journals

Science Publishing Group carries out one more special offer to the authors in order to appreciate the support of the authors and boost the development of SciencePG’s journals.

You can enjoy all the benefits if you submit your papers to SciencePG:

1. Free publication in the following 12 journals:

Advances in Biochemistry
International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks
Advances in Networks
Science Innovation
History Research
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
American Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications
Software Engineering
Advances in Surgical Sciences
American Journal of Aerospace Engineering

2. 70% discount in the following 5 journals:

Science Discovery
International Journal of Philosophy
Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering
International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Science Journal of Energy Engineering

SciencePG welcomes both scholars and practitioners to submit valuable papers to SciencePG’s journals through:

Kind Notes: the Special Offer is valid from August 22 to September 6, 2015.

News source:

Advances in Networks

131Advances in Networks (NET) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international scientific journal published bimonthly, focusing on theories, methods, and applications in networks. It provides a high profile, leading edge forum for academic researchers, industrial professionals, engineers, consultants, managers, educators and policy makers working in the field to contribute and disseminate innovative new work on networks.

Advances in Networks is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal, publishing original research, reports, reviews and commentaries on all areas of networks. Subject areas may include, but are not limited to the following fields:

  • • Next generation network
  • • Network topology
  • • Network performance
  • • Network security
  • • Cloud computing
  • • Semantic web
  • • Ubiquitous computing security
  • • Network applications
  • • Complex network models
  • • Internet socio-economic models
  • • Queuing theory
  • • Multimedia sciences and security
  • • Distributive computing
  • • Pervasive computing
  • • Intrusion detection and prevention
  • • Network management
  • • Cryptographic protocols
  • • Wired technologies
  • • Wireless technologies
  • • Computer network programming
  • • Qos and multimedia networking
  • • Wireless communication
  • • Mobile computing
  • • Content architecture
  • • Service-centric architecture
  • • Communication networks algorithm
  • • Information systems audit & control
  • • Linear algebra
  • • Optimization theories
  • • Techniques

ISSN:2326-9766 (Print)

ISSN:2326-9782 (Online)

If you like, you can read all scientific articles in this journal for free, or you can submit your research paper about any of these topic in this journal:


NOAA investigates 30 large whale deaths in Alaska

NOAA investigates 30 large whale deaths in Alaska

Since May, 30 large whales have died in the western Gulf of Alaska. Yesterday, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) called the deaths an “unusual mortality event” and launched an investigationto figure out what is causing the whales’ demise, The Washington Post reports. So far, 11 fin whales, 14 humpback whales, one gray whale, and four unidentified species have perished in the area, bringing the large whale strandings for the region to almost three times the historical average, NOAA says. The causes of death are as yet unknown, although a leading hypothesis is harmful algal bloom toxins. Scientists report there has been no evidence so far of radiation exposure from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.


Event Tree as a Classification Model

Authors: Jelena Djurovic, Danica Brzic, Tatjana Kaludjerovic Radoicic

Abstract: In this paper event tree model as qualitative support method was used. This is applied to fault tree analysis. Transfer and transformation facts and rules for problem solving were described. Method for knowledge extraction was presented. Mechanism of decision making and conclusions was implemented. Faults detection and classification were examined. That is significant for isolating all types of hazard and take appropriate steps to reduce and control these hazards.

Keywords: Fault Tree, Cause-Consequence, Classification, Rules Modeling, Acquisition

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If it goes back to the chief tasks of safety analysis methods can be placed in four groups, two relating to the identification of problems and two to their assessment. All formal methods can be considered as combinations of two methods, cause-consequence analysis, a combination of incident sequence analysis and fault tree analysis [1]-[5].

In the design of a new plant, they should come in at the detailed safety design phase, when most of the Piping and instrumentation diagram (PID) are ready [6]-[9]. These methods are also useful in the inspection of plants already built and on stream. The methods from this class incident sequence analysis and fault tree analysis examine links between faults, represent them graphically, and can assign probabilities to them. Incident sequence analysis starts with a single fault, and observes how it may develop. The working hypothesis is that every safety measure can succeed or fail with a certain probability.

The design and construction of safe plants calls for a highly structured and organized procedure clearly setting forth what has to be done by whom and in what way, and focusing on the creation and routing of documents. This is called a safety management system.

Knowledge bases can be understand as a special case decision support systems and the other hand knowledge bases present new stage in development evaluation step of information technologies. Knowledge base is the basic element of the expert system. Expression expert system is very often applied to program which use knowledge for behavior man-expert simulation, or whose function has some attributes man–expert behavior [1], [2]. It has power to learn from experience, general knowledge achievement, reconceptualization, analogy resonable, transfer knowledge from one domain to the other, flexibility and changeable approach for problem solution. Behind these, expert selecting alternative solutions, explaining its diagnosis as well as to learn from previously experiences adding knowledge base new elements which achieving during the problem solution [3],[4],[10].

Basic difference between expert systems and classical programs is that expert systems manipulate with knowledge and classical programs manipulate with data. Expert system has ability to solve complex problem which including uncertainty by information processing.

In this paper knowledge building for problem recognition and solving was developed.

If you like, you can read full scientific article here:


Spiders glide gracefully to safety

Living high in the rainforest canopies of South America, selenopid spiders are at constant risk of falling. Because they don’t have wings, scientists had assumed they had little control over their fate. But a new study published online today in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface shows that they might have more than we realized: These arboreal spiders can control their falls, gliding from tree to tree to avoid the dangerous forest floor, just like flying squirrels. But the spiders don’t use webbing between their legs. Instead, they manage to stay aloft because of their wide, flat bodies. To find out just how agile the canopy-dwelling spiders are, the team went to Panama and Peru, where they dropped them from a height and filmed their descent (shown above). They found that 86% of selenopid spiders directed their falls toward nearby tree trunks, rather than simply plummeting to the ground. The researchers also filmed spiders’ movements in a wind tunnel, and found that they opt to fall head first, orienting their front legs to steer them to safety. Although small spiders commonly use a behavior called “ballooning,” in which they use a silk line to catch the wind and carry them to new locations, this is the first time that controlled gliding has been demonstrated in arachnids. Some ants and bristletails can also glide, and the authors say their trajectories are strikingly similar to the spiders, even though they use different techniques. Gliding ants fall backwards and steer with their back legs, while bristletails fall forwards and flex their abdomens for steering.

(Video credit: Science)


International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy

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Beginning Date: Aug. 25, 2015

Ending Date: Aug. 27, 2015

Language: English


Omics Group



OMICS Group invites you to attend the International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy which will be held on August 26-28, 2015 at Valencia, Spain. The main theme of the conference is “Accelerating Advancements and Frontiers in Biofuels & Bioenergy”.
Biofuels-2015 is an extraordinary event designed for the International professionals to facilitate the dissemination and application of research findings related to Biofuels and Bioenergy as replacement fuels. The conference invites participants from all leading universities, research institutions and leading companies to share their research experiences on all aspects of this rapidly expanding field.
Biofuels-2015 focuses on the production, industrial implementation strategies and economic growth from biofuels. It is a scientific platform to meet fellow key decision makers all-around the Biotech organizations, Academic Institutions, Industries, & Environment Related Institutes etc., and making the congress a perfect platform to share and gain the knowledge in the field of bioenergy and biofuels.
Biofuels-2015 will schedule and coordinate all meetings with our editorial board members and other experts in the world related to the respective theme. The scientific program paves a way to gather visionaries through the research talks and presentations and put forward many thought provoking strategies of production and scale up of renewable Energy and making the congress a perfect platform to share proficiency.
Now, a few days left, hurry up, if you are interested in this international conference.