The Biology of Prolotherapy and Its Application in Clinical Cervical Spine Instability and Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Study

Authors information:

Ross A. Hauser1, Danielle Steilen1, Karina Gordin2, *

1Caring Medical & Rehabilitation Services, Oak Park, IL, USA

2HealthWright, Wayland, MA, USA


Background: In an effort to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cervical spine instability (CCSI) and chronic neck pain, we investigated the role of proliferative injection Prolotherapy in the reduction of pain and recovery of constitutional and neurological symptoms associated with increased intervertebral motion, structural deformity and irritation of nerve roots. Methods: For this retrospective case series, 21 study participants were selected from patients seen for the primary complaint of cervicalgia. Following a series of proliferative injections, performed in a private sub-specialty pain clinic, patient-reported assessments were measured using questionnaire data, including range of motion (ROM), crunching, stiffness, pain level, numbness, and exercise ability, between 1 and 39 months post-treatment (mean = 24 months). All patients signed a consent form prior to treatment.  Results: 95 percent of patients reported that Prolotherapy met their expectations in regards to pain relief and functionality. Significant reductions in pain at rest, during normal activity, and during exercise were reported. A mean of 86 percent of patients reported overall sustained improvement, while 33 percent reported complete functional recovery. 31 percent of patients reported complete relief of all recorded symptoms. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate statistically significant reductions in pain and functionality, indicating the safety and viability of Prolotherapy for cervical spine instability. Such clinical efficacy of this procedure warrants further investigation as a non-invasive treatment option.

Keywords: Atlanto-Axial Joint, Barré-Liéou Syndrome, Cervicalgia, Cervical Instability, Facet Joint Injury, Manual Therapy, Posterior Cervical Sympathetic Syndrome, Prolotherapy

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Tiny grains of rice hold big promise for greenhouse gas reductions, bioenergy

Discovery delivers high starch content, virtually no methane emissions
July 29, 2015
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population, but the paddies it’s grown in contributes up to 17 percent of global methane emissions — about 100 million tons a year. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane, more starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production.
Rice serves as the staple food for more than half of the world’s population, but it’s also the one of the largest humanmade sources of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane from its paddies during growth. It also packs much more of the plant’s desired properties, such as starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production, according to a study in Nature.

In addition to a near elimination of greenhouse gases associated with its growth, SUSIBA2 rice produces substantially more grains for a richer food source. The new strain is shown here (right) compared to the study’s control.
Credit: Image courtesy of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

With their warm, waterlogged soils, rice paddies contribute up to 17 percent of global methane emissions, the equivalent of about 100 million tons each year. While this represents a much smaller percentage of overall greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide, methane is about 20 times more effective at trapping heat. SUSIBA2 rice, as the new strain is dubbed, is the first high-starch, low-methane rice that could offer a significant and sustainable solution.

Researchers created SUSIBA2 rice by introducing a single gene from barley into common rice, resulting in a plant that can better feed its grains, stems and leaves while starving off methane-producing microbes in the soil.

The results, which appear in the July 30 print edition of Nature and online, represent a culmination of more than a decade of work by researchers in three countries, including Christer Jansson, director of plant sciences at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and EMSL, DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Jansson and colleagues hypothesized the concept while at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and carried out ongoing studies at the university and with colleagues at China’s Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Hunan Agricultural University.

“The need to increase starch content and lower methane emissions from rice production is widely recognized, but the ability to do both simultaneously has eluded researchers,” Jansson said. “As the world’s population grows, so will rice production. And as Earth warms, so will rice paddies, resulting in even more methane emissions. It’s an issue that must be addressed.”

Channeling carbon

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is absorbed and converts to sugars to feed or be stored in various parts of the plant. Researchers have long sought to better understand and control this process to coax out desired characteristics of the plant. Funneling more carbon to the seeds in rice results in a plumper, starchier grain. Similarly, carbon and resulting sugars channeled to stems and leaves increases their mass and creates more plant biomass, a bioenergy feedstock.

In early work in Sweden, Jansson and his team investigated how distribution of sugars in plants could be controlled by a special protein called a transcription factor, which binds to certain genes and turns them on or off.

“By controlling where the transcription factor is produced, we can then dictate where in a plant the carbon — and resulting sugars — accumulate,” Jansson said.

To narrow down the mass of gene contenders, the team started with grains of barley that were high in starch, then identified genes within that were highly active. The activity of each gene then was analyzed in an attempt to find the specific transcription factor responsible for regulating the conversion of sugar to starch in the above-ground portions of the plant, primarily the grains.

The master plan

Upon discovery of the transcription factor SUSIBA2, for SUgar SIgnaling in BArley 2, further investigation revealed it was a type known as a master regulator. Master regulators control several genes and processes in metabolic or regulatory pathways. As such, SUSIBA2 had the ability to direct the majority of carbon to the grains and leaves, and essentially cut off the supply to the roots and soil where certain microbes consume and convert it to methane.

Researchers introduced SUSIBA2 into a common variety of rice and tested its performance against a non-modified version of the same strain. Over three years of field studies in China, researchers consistently demonstrated that SUSIBA2 delivered increased crop yields and a near elimination of methane emissions.

Next steps

Jansson will continue his work with SUSIBA2 this fall to further investigate the mechanisms involved with the allocation of carbon using mass spectrometry and imaging capabilities at EMSL. Jansson and collaborators also want to analyze how roots and microbial communities interact to gain a more holistic understanding of any impacts a decrease in methane-producing bacteria may have.

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

J. Su, C. Hu, X. Yan, Y. Jin, Z. Chen, Q. Guan, Y. Wang, D. Zhong, C. Jansson, F. Wang, A. Schnürer, C. Sun. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice. Nature, 2015; 523 (7562): 602 DOI: 10.1038/nature14673


How Ant-Man ants got this Cheerio home

When out of their nest, workers of the longhorn crazy ant (Paratrechinalongicornis) band together toward a common goal: to bring food back to the nest. But even when a few of these long-legged, silver-haired ants (of Ant-Man fame) team up to carry a large item—such as a wasp—they often lose their way home. That’s where a wandering ant comes in, according to a study published online today in Nature Communications. This wanderer from the same nest joins the group to steer it in the right direction—it pulls and others comply (as seen in the video above of ants carrying a Cheerio). But the new recruit eventually forgets the way home as well; perhaps the size and smell of the food impede navigation. That’s when another free-roaming ant comes to the band’s rescue and leads it toward the nest. Over time—and a handful of wandering ants—the group finds its way home.

Why is Divorce becoming so common today?

f9178366c5e2a45005b8114515d44bc6If you actually thought cheating in marriage is the main reason for divorce, then you are mistaken!  Many people are out there looking for the reason for the breakdown of their marriage. What factors really led to your spouse or you to no longer have interest in the marriage?

Top Reasons for Divorce

From sex to money and everything else that comes in between, the following are the 10 causes of divorce-;

  1. Disappearance of Intimacy

It reaches somewhere in your marriage whereby you hit a subtle change the department of intimacy. One person tends to think the other one is not sexual or romantic. Many academic journals have written that it does matter if it is the man or the woman, the marriage can be turned down just because of that. Women tend to have the desire to get romanced while men on the other hand require sexual receptivity in order to feel romantic. If this is absent, it can lead to divorce.

  1. Being in the Marriage for the Wrong Reasons

If you married for money then that is definitely a quick ticket to divorce. Also, if you married because you actually thought you ought to be in a marriage, then you will not stay for long in it.

  1. Lack of Shared Success Vision

Maybe your man saves and all you want to do is spend or maybe your idea of a weekend away is going to camp and sleep in an expensive cottage house in the woods. Your man on the other hand wants to catch a game and take you for an ice-cream in town. These differences may lead to a divorce

  1. Unmet Anticipations.

According to peer reviewed journal articles, when married partners are trying to force each other into doing things that they do not want to do for the sake of their happiness, this this could be a major problem. If you are not happy in a relationship, then it is okay to talk about it and reach a solution. However, if the other partner does not accommodate you then it is okay to look for what makes you happy.

  1. Poor Conflict Resolution Methods.

Every marriage faces disagreements. The main solution is to have respects for each other and know how to solve conflicts. In cases where couples require a third party to explain the rules of marriage to them, then it can lead to a divorce.

  1. Finances

Lack of finances does not lead to divorce; however, lack of compatibility in the financial field leads to divorce.

Modern Robotics with OpenCV


Dr. Widodo Budiharto is a senior lecturer and researcher at School of Computer Science Binus University, Jakarta-Indonesia. He was PhD graduated from Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya. His research areas are Robot Vision, Artificial Intelligence, mobile programming and Embedded Systems. He has many experience for guest professor, and consultant in embedded systems and robotics in Indonesia.


Robotics is an interesting topic today. This book is written to provide an introduction to intelligent robotics using OpenCV. This very useful book intended for a first course in robot vision and covers modeling and implementation of intelligent robot. The need for this textbook arose from teaching robotics to student and hobbyist for many years and facing the difficulty to provide excellent book to explain advanced technology in intelligent robotics and kinematics of the robot.

This book differs from other robot vision textbooks:
1. Its content is consisting of many implementations of mobile robot and manipulator using OpenCV.
2. Using newest technology in Microcontroller such as Propeller Microcontroller for robotics.
3. Its content is consisting of introduction and implementation of OpenCV described clearly.

If you want, you can read this book in Science Publishing Group, open access.

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation

340International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation (IJALT) is a bi–monthly(every two months) peer-reviewed open access journal in English language. It is published in On-line and Print forms by the Science Publishing Group (SPG). It is internationally refereed and articles undergo peer review and blind evaluation by at least two reviewers from the journal’s editorial board as well as other academic experts, and concerned with all branches of language and linguistics with preference given to articles of practical interest (Applied Linguistics and Translation). The journal maintains an international and world-wide focus, while at the same time encouraging articles from American, European researchers. IJALT makes every effort to ensure the high accuracy and quality of all the information (the “Content”) contained in its publications.

This is also a new journal in SciencePG, if you want, you can submit your paper in this journal through here:


Storm chaser enjoys epic day with 14 tornadoes in one hour

Storm chaser Brian Morganti enjoys epic day with 14 tornadoes in one hour. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

A storm chaser enjoyed an epic day in Colorado last month when he captured so many amazing images of tornadoes that he stopped taking photos, knowing the tornadoes he already photographed were far better than any he was seeing.

Brian Morganti, a life-long weather enthusiast from Berks Country, Pennsylvania, has been chasing storms for 19 years, driving more than 200,000 miles across the Great Plains. But this day was unlike any other.

Morganti captured images of 14 tornadoes within one hour with many of those coming within a 24-minute period. He released several of his amazing photos Wednesday via Caters News, including the above image of a tornado coming perilously close to a farm.

A trunk-style tornado in Matheson, Colorado. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

A needle spout tornado in Simla, Colorado. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

“I was rather confident there would be a nice super cell or two to chase, and maybe even a brief tornado…but had no idea I would be intercepting one of the most prolific tornado producers of my 19-year chase career!” Morganti wrote about the start of that day on his Storm Effects website.

Traveling along a highway near Kiowa and then Limon, he briefly drove southwest on Highway 24, which led to the base of a storm cell with another looming to the west. He headed down Highway 71 out of Limon and traversed a network of gravel roads.

“I stopped a few times to photograph the super cell structure and on one of these stops lingered for awhile watching the amazing structure and tightening rotation that was taking place under the base,” he wrote.

“The first cone-shaped tornado touched down and this was followed by other tornadoes in varying shapes…stovepipes, truncated cones, elephant trunk, etc. According to my time stamps this went on for 24 minutes with very few breaks in the tornado action.

“I then went south to stay with the storm, which was now moving a bit more to the east. The base was quite large and ominous looking and a dark tornado was occasionally visible through the rain curtains to my northwest. Soon, a ‘satellite’ ropy tornado with a red dust tube formed in front of the dark tornado and the scene was surreal!”

A dark needle tornado in Simla, Colorado. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

A dual tornado in Matheson, Colorado. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

A red dust-acquiring tornado in Simla, Colorado. Photo: Brian A. Morganti/

That day, Morganti drove roughly 375 miles by the time he was back in Castle Rock for the night.

“Along the way, I photographed a very pretty LP super cell lit up by the setting sun…and that in itself would have made the day,” he wrote.

Instead, it became a footnote to this amazing day.

Eating Disorders

0bbc5436da68877c950167ddf5be7dacEating disorders are complicated, potentially devastating, and quite serious.  Why do people develop eating disorders?  Why do they happen? Eating disorders include bulimia and anorexia and according to scientific research they are caused by a number of factors including environmental, genetic, cultural, psychological, and biochemical.

3 Major Causes of Eating Disorders

Psychology: Psychological factors such as perfectionism, inadequacy or hopelessness, low self-esteem and impulsivity are major causes of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

Environment: The environment one is living in plays a very important role in developing an eating disorder. These factors include; sexual/physical abuse, peer pressure, bullying, difficult childhood, and relationship problems.

Culture: Wanting to become thin, being dissatisfied with your body shape and size, and dieting upsurges the risk of being anorexic. This is so unfortunate because our society advocates for the three.  The media, beauty standards of a society, and positive qualities associated with thinness always lead to eating disorders.

Types of eating disorders and their Symptoms

  1. Anorexia Nervosa

According to scientific journals individuals with this condition see themselves as overweight even when their weight is so low. Controlling weight as well as food becomes an obsession to them. Individuals with this condition weigh themselves often, eat small portion of foods, count calories in every meal and measure food very carefully.


  • Extremely controlled eating habits
  • Intense anxiety of weight gain
  • Extreme emaciation
  • Low self-esteem and self-denial
  • Lack of menstruation among women and girls
  • Unwillingness to maintain a healthy diet and weight
  • Bone thinning
  • Brain damage
  • Severe constipation
  • Tiredness


  1. Bulimia nervosa

Individuals with this condition have frequent and recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of foods and are unable to control this feeling when it occurs. This feeling is associated with excess use of laxatives, forced vomiting, exercising excessively or a combination of all. People with this condition are usually faced with the fear of gaining weight and desperately want to lose it.


  • They are severely dehydrated
  • Have high hormonal imbalance
  • Sore throat/ inflamed chronically
  • Irritation caused by abuse of laxatives
  • Intestinal distress
  • Salivary glands tend to be swollen especially in the jaw and neck areas
  • Gastrointestinal problems


Reduction of excessive exercising, engaging in healthy diets and discontinuing purging habits are the most recommended treatments for the two disorders. A talk therapy or psychotherapy is also an effective way of controlling these disorders.

Treatments can also be instilled in the following ways

  1. Nutritional counselors
  2. Close monitoring and medical care
  3. Medications
  4. Family, group or individual psychotherapy

The Difference Factors Influencing the Chinese and Foreign Creative Fashion Design Talent Cultivation and Contrast Analysis

502 (1)Authors: Yating Zhang, Hongjian Qu
Clothing Institute, Shanghai university of Engineering and Technology, Shanghai, China
Abstract: This paper summarizes 11 possible difference factors affecting domestic and foreign creative fashion design talent training through an extensive literature review, and extracts three common factors by the R-type factor analysis. Finally, picking up the University of Edinburgh with first-class School of Design and the domestic Donghua University with excellent clothing major for example, and providing improvement direction for Chinese creative costume design talent training.
Keywords: The Chinese and Foreign Creative Fashion Design, Talent Cultivation, Different Factors, Comparative Analysis


With the rapid development of economy and technology, as well as the deepening of economic globalization, the creative industries have been the core of the industry’s economic growth and the important factors of measuring international competitiveness. As part of the creative industries, the development of creative fashion design lies in the promotion of talents. Currently, the international influence of our clothing brands isn’t high,and brand imitation seriously , especially children’s wear. Moreover, the training model of excellent designers is single , and teaching exists some errors, also irrational structure of teachers and single teaching methods and other malpractices. With the advent of the personalized era, clothing consumer brand awareness has enhanced, and increasingly demanding for all aspects of clothing. In the face of strong international brands attack, China want to complete the shift of”big clothing country” to “powerful clothing country” , which needs a batch of professional creative fashion design talents to build counter market, and win high efficiency. From the literature consulted , which are mostly from the status of fashion design talents to explore teaching strategies. This paper, from international perspective,analyzes the difference factors affecting Chinese and foreign creative fashion design talent training, providing improved direction for Chinese creative fashion design talent training.

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Battle wound may reveal bones of Alexander the Great’s father

A battle wound suffered more than 2000 years ago may be helping scientists lay a 40-year-old archaeological mystery to rest. In a 4th century B.C.E. skirmish over war spoils, a lance impaled the leg of King Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, killing his horse and leaving the powerful ruler lame, according to ancient literary sources. Three years later, Philip—who was probably in his mid-40s—was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding celebration, and it wasn’t until the late 1970s, when two male skeletons were excavated from a pair of royal tombs in Vergina, Greece, that researchers believed they had found the monarch’s remains. After decades of debate, many archaeologists concluded that Philip was buried in tomb II, now commonly called the “Tomb of Philip.” Among other evidence, its male skeleton bore damage to the skull, which scholars linked to an injury the ruler received when an arrow reportedly left him blind in his right eye. Now, a new study published today in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences may have turned that idea on its head. Using scanning and radiography to analyze the unearthed bones, a team of scientists has concluded that tomb I, not tomb II, housed the king’s remains as well as those of his roughly 18-year-old wife, Cleopatra, and their newborn child, both killed soon after Philip. The approximately 45-year-old male had leg bones that show evidence of a traumatic injury: The knee area sported a suspicious spear-sized hole, and the tibia and femur had fused together at the joint—likely a result of the penetrating wound—which would have given the owner a pronounced limp (see video). The other male skeleton bears no evidence of such a debilitating wound, casting doubt on its authenticity, the scientists say.